Exégèse du verset 33 de la sourate 33 – Ahl Al Bayt

Jami’ At-Tirmidhi – Edition Darussalam – Volume 5 – Hadith 3205 page 516

(7). 3205. ‘Umar bin Abl Salamah – the step-son of the Prophet (sawas) -said: “When these Ayat were revealed to the Prophet (sawas) : ‘Allah only wishes to remove the Rijs from you, O members of the family, and to purify you with a thorough purification.’ in the home of Umm Salamah, he called for Fatimah, Hasan, Husain, and wrapped them in a cloak, and ‘Ali was behind him, so he wrapped him in the cloak, then he said: ‘O Allah! These are the people of my house, so remove the Rijs from them, and purify them with a through purification.’ So Umm Salamah said: ‘And I, Prophet of Allah?’ He said: ‘You are in your place, and you are upon goodness.’” (Sahih)

Abu ‘Elsa said: This Hadith is Gharib from this route, as a narration of ‘Ata’ from ‘Umar bin Abi Salamah.

Jami’ At-Tirmidhi – Edition Darussalam – Volume 5 – Hadith 3206 page 517

(8). 3206. Anas bin Malik said: “For six months, the Messenger of Allah (sawas) would pass by the door of Fatimah when going to the Fajr prayer saying: ‘As-Salat’ O people of the house! Allah only wishes to remove the Rijs from you, O members of the family, and to purify you with a thorough purification.’” (Da‘if)

[He said:] This Hadith is Hasan Gharib from this route. We only know of it as a narration of Hammad bin Salamah. [He said:] There are narrations on this topic from Abu Al-Hamra’, Ma’qil bin Yasar, and Umm Salamah.

Jami’ At-Tirmidhi – Edition Darussalam – Volume 5 – Hadith 3787 pages 435 et 436

3787. ‘Umar bin Abl Salamah -the step-son of the Prophet (sawas) -said: “When these Ayat were revealed to the Prophet ‘Allah only wishes to remove the Rijs from you, O members of the family, and to purify you with a thorough purification…’ in the home of Umm Salamah, he called for Fatimah, Hasan, Husain, and wrapped them in a cloak, and ‘Ali was behind him, so he wrapped him in the cloak, then he said: ‘O Allah! These are the people of my house, so remove the Rijs from them, and purify them with a thorough purification.’ So Umm Salamah said: ‘And am I with them O Messenger of Allah?’ He said: ‘You are in your place, and you are more virtuous to me. ’” (Sahih)
[He said:] And there are narrations concerning this topic from Umm Salamah, Ma‘qil bin Yasar, Abu Al-Hamra’, and Anas bin Malik.
[Abu ‘Eisa said:] This Hadith is Gharib from this route.

Jami’ At-Tirmidhi – Edition Darussalam – Volume 5 – Hadith 3871 page 487

3871. Umm Salamah narrated: “The Prophet (sawas) put a garment over Al-Hasan, Al-Husain, ‘Ali, and Fatimah, then he said: ‘O Allah, these are the people of my house and the close ones, so remove the Rijs from them and purify them thoroughly.” So Umm Salamah said: ‘And am I with them, O Messenger of Allah?’ He said: “You are upon good.’’’ (Hasan) 

L’Exégèse du Coran – Ibn Kathir – Volume 3 – Sourate 33 verset 33 pages 332 et 333

Dieu ne veut qu’écarter de vous la souillure, ô maisonnée, et vous purifier mentionne l’implication des épouses du Prophète (ç) parmi sa maisonnée, car elles étaient la cause dans la descente de ces versets. Ikrima, rapporte-t-on, disait dans le marché: Dieu ne veut qu’écarter de vous la souillure, ô maisonnée, et vous purifier est descendu au sujet des femmes du Prophète (ç) particulièrement.» Toutefois, cela ne veut pas dire qu’elles sont les seules visées par ce seg. Aïcha; J’ai vu l’Envoyé (ç) convoquer Ali, Fâtima, Hasan et Husayn (r) pour les couvrir en disant: «Dieu, voici ma maisonnée; écarte donc d’eux la souillure et purifie-les !» Je me suis alors rapprochée d’eux pour dire; «Ô Envoyé de Dieu, suis-je de ta maisonnée ?» L’Envoyé (ç) a donc dit: «Mets-toi donc de côté. Tu es (déjà) sur le bien.»
Là où il n’y a pas à douter c’est la disposition du Coran. Les femmes du Prophète (ç) sont donc incluses dans ce seg. Dieu ne veut qu’écarter de vous la souillure, ô maisonnée, et vous purifier, car le contexte du discours les concerne.

Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal – Edition Darussalam – Volume 3 – Hadith 3061 pages 90 à 93

3061. ‘Amr bin Maimoon said: I was sitting with Ibn ‘Abbas when nine people came to him and said: O Abu ‘Abbas, either you get up and come with us, or you people should leave us alone. Ibn ‘Abbas said: Rather I will get up and go with you. At that time he was healthy, before he went blind. They started speaking and I did not know what they were saying. Then he started flapping his garment and saying: Uff! They criticised a man who had ten qualities; they criticised a man to whom the Prophet (sawas) said: « I shall surely send a man who Allah will never let down; he loves Allah and His Messenger. » And many hoped for it. He said: « Where is ‘Ali? » They said: He is at the mill grinding flour. He said: « Why can’t one of you do that? » Then he [‘Ali] came; he had an eye infection and could hardly see. [The Prophet (sawas)] spat dryly in his eyes, then he shook the banner three times and gave it to him- And he brought Safiyyah bint Huyay. Then he sent So and so with Soorat at-Tawbah, and he sent ‘Ali after him to take it from him. He said: « No one should take it except a man who is of me and I am of him. » And he said to his cousins: « Who among you would support me in this world and the Hereafter? » And ‘Ali was sitting with him. They refused but ‘Ali said: I will support you in this world and the Hereafter. He said: « You are my supporter in this world and the Hereafter. » Then he turned from him to a man among them and he said: « Who among you would support me in this world and in the Hereafter? » They refused but ‘Ali said: I will be your supporter in this world and the Hereafter. He said: « You are my supporter in this world and the Hereafter. » He was the first of the people to become Muslim after Khadeejah. The Messenger of Allah (sawas) took his garment and put it over ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husain, and said: « Allah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs (evil deeds and sins) from you, O members of the family (of the Prophet (sawas)), and to purify you with a thorough purification » [al-Ahzab 33:33]. ‘Ali sold himself for the sake of Allah) when he wore the garment of the Prophet (sawas) and slept in his bed when the mushrikeen were after the Messenger Allah (sawas), Abu Bakr came when Ali was sleeping and he thought that he was the Prophet of Allah and said: O Prophet of Allah. ‘Ali said to him: The Prophet of Allah (sawas) has set out towards Bi’r Maimoon; go and catch up with him. So Abu Bakr set out and he entered the cave with him.’ Ali had stones thrown at him, as happened to the Prophet of Allah, and he [‘Ali] was groaning with pain. He wrapped his head with the cloth and did not uncover it until morning came. Then he uncovered it and they said: You are bad; we used to throw stones at your companion and he never groaned with pain but you groaned with pain, and we found that strange. And he went out with the people on the campaign to Tabook. ‘Ali said to him: Shall I go out with you? The Prophet of Allah (sawas) said to him: « No, » and ‘Ali wept. Then he said to him: « Doesn’t it please you to be to me as Haroon was to Moosa, except that you are not a Prophet? I should not go unless you are my deputy (acting in my stead during my absence). » And the Messenger of Allah (sawas) said to him: « You are protector of every believer after me. » And he blocked up all the doors of the mosque except the door of ‘Ali and he used to enter the mosque when he was junub, as that was his thoroughfare and he had no other thoroughfare. And he said: « If I am a person’s mawla, ‘Ali is also his mawla. » He said: Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, told us in the Qur’an that He was pleased with them, meaning the companions of the tree (those who swore allegiance to the Prophet (sawas) in Bay’atar-Ridwan under a tree, mentioned in al-Fath 48:18). He knew what was in their hearts; did He tell us that He was angry with them after that?! And the Prophet of Allah (sawas) said to ‘Umar, when he said, Give me permission to strike his neck: « Would you do that? You do not know, perhaps Allah looked at the people of Badr and said: Do whatever you wish. »

Riyad as-Salihin – An-Nawawi – Hadith 346 page 104

346. Yazîd Ibn Habbân a dit: «Je me rendis en compagnie de Housayn Ibn Sabra et de ‘Amr Ibn Moslem chez Zeyd Ibn Arqam (das). Quand nous nous assîmes auprès de lui, Housayn lui dit: «Tu as certainement rencontré, ô Zeyd!, un grand bien. Tu as vu en effet le Messager de Dieu (bsdl) et tu as entendu ses paroles. Tu as de même pris part à ses campagnes et tu as fais la prière derrière lui. C’est pourquoi tu as certainement rencontré, ô Zeyd!, un grand bien. O Zeyd! Parle-nous un peu de ce que tu as entendu de la bouche du Messager de Dieu (bsdl)». Il dit: «O fils de mon frère! Par Dieu, mon âge est déjà avancé, mon temps est devenu ancien et j’ai oublié une partie de ce que j’avais retenu jadis des paroles du Messager de Dieu (bsdl). Acceptez donc les Hadiths que je vous rapporte et ne me mettez pas dans l’embarras pour ce que je ne vous en ai pas rapporté». Puis il dit: «le Messager de Dieu (bsdl) se leva parmi nous pour nous faire un discours auprès d’un lac appelé Khomm entre la Mecque et Médine. Il prononça d’abord la louange et la glorification de Dieu, puis nous fit une leçon de morale, nous rappela nos obligations et dit enfin: «Or donc! Attention, ô gens! Je ne suis qu’un être humain et le messager de Dieu (l’Ange de la mort) ne va plus tarder à venir m’appeler et moi à y répondre. Je laisse après moi deux choses de grand poids: d’abord le Livre de Dieu contenant la bonne direction et la lumière. Pratiquez ses enseignements et accrochez-vous à lui». Il exhorta alors les gens à respecter les enseignements du Livre de Dieu et les poussa à l’aimer. Puis il leur dit: «…Puis les membres de ma famille. Je vous rappelle Dieu pour tout ce qui concerne les membres de ma famille». Houçayn lui dit: «Qui sont les membres de sa famille? 0 Zeyd!» Il dit: «Ses femmes font partie de sa famille mais les membres de sa famille sont ceux à qui il a été interdit d’accepter les aumônes du trésor public après sa mort». Il dit: «Et qui sont-ils?» Il dit: «Les familles de ‘Ali, de ‘Aqil, de Ja‘far et de ‘Abbâs». Il dit: «A-t-on interdit à tous ceux-là d’accepter les aumônes du trésor public?» Il dit: «Oui». (Rapporté par Moslem)
Dans une autre version: «Attention! Je vais laisser après moi parmi vous deux choses de grand poids: L’une d’elles est le Livre de Dieu et c’est la corde de Dieu. Celui qui le suit sera sur la bonne voie et celui qui le délaisse sera dans l’errance».

Sahih Muslim – Edition Darussalam – Volume 6 – Hadith 6261 page 284

[6261] 61 – (2424) It was narrated that Safiyyah bint Shaibah said: “Âishah said: ‘The Prophet (sawas) went out one moming wearing a striped cloak of black camel hair. Al-Hasan bin ‘Alî came and he enfolded him in the cloak, then Al-Husain came and he enfolded him in it, then Fâtimah came and he enfolded her in it, then ‘Alî came and he enfolded him in it, then he said: “Allâh wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs (evil deeds and sins) from you, O members of the family, and to purify you with a thorough purification.’’

The History of Al-Tabari – Volume 39 – Biographies of the Prophet’s Companions and Their Succesors – Page 155

According to ‘Abd al-A’la b. Wasil and Sufyan b. Waki’—Abu Nu’aym al-Fadl b. Dukayn—Yunus b. Abi Ishaq—Abu Da’ud— Abu al-Hamra’: I lived in Medina for seven months during the Prophet’s lifetime; each day at dawn I saw the Prophet come to the door of ‘Ali and Fâtimah and call “To the prayer, to the prayer; indeed, Allah simply wishes to take away the foulness from you and to purify you thoroughly.' »(697)

697. Qur’an 33:33, trans. Bell, II, 414. This is a version of what is called The Tradition of the Covering [hadith al-kisa’), which aims at identifying the ahl al-bayt, i.e., the family of the Prophet. The proper identification of the term is directly connected with the political issue of authority, as the Shi’is applied it to « Ali, Fâtimah, and their descendants only, whereas the Abbasids included them-selves in it. See Sharon, « Notes »; idem, « Development »; idem, « The Umayyads »; « Ahl al-bayt, » EI², I, 257-58 (I. Goldziher, C. van Arendonck, and A. S. Tritton). For other versions of the tradition, see Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, VI, 292; Arazi and El’ad. 241, 254 no. 39: see also Zaghlul, III, 555