Récits sur l’événement de Ghadir Khumm et la nomination de ‘Ali en tant que « Mawla »

Jami’ At-Tirmidhi – Edition Darussalam – Volume 6 – Hadith 3712 pages 386, 387

3712. ‘Imrân bin Husain narrated that the Messenger of Allah sawas dispatched an army and he put ‘Ali bin Abi Tâlib in charge of it. He left on the expedition and he entered upon a female slave. So four of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah sawas scolded him, and they made a pact saying: “[If] we meet the Messenger of Allah sawas we will inform him of what ‘Ali did.” When the Muslims returned from the journey, they would begin with the Messenger of Allah sawas and give him Salâm, then they would go to their homes. So when the expedition arrived, they gave Salâm to the Prophet sawas, and one of the four stood saying: “O Messenger of Allah! Do you see that ‘Ali bin Abi Tâlib did such and such.” The Messenger of Allah sawas tumed away from him. Then the second one stood and said as he said, and he turned away from him. Then the third stood before him, and said as he said, and he turned away from him. Then the fourth stood and said as they had said. The Messenger of Allah sawas faced him, and the anger was visible on his face, he said: “What do you want from ‘Ali?! What do you want from ‘Ali?! What do you want from ‘Ali?! Indeed ‘Ali is from me, and I am from him, and he is the ally of every believer after me.” (Hasan)
[Abu ‘Eisa said:] This Hadîth is Hasan Gharib, and we do not know of it except as a narration of Ja’far bin Sulaimân.

Jami’ At-Tirmidhi – Edition Darussalam – Volume 6 – Hadith 3713 page 387

3713. Abu Sarihah, or Zaid bin Arqam – Shu’bah had doubt -narrated, from the Prophet sawas : ‘“For whomever I am his Mawlâ then ‘AIi is his Mawalâ.” (Sahih) [Abü ‘Eisa said:] This Hadith, is Hasan Gharib. Shu‘bah reported this Hadith. similarly, from Maimun Abu ‘Abdullâh, from Zaid bin Arqam from the Prophet sawas. Abu Sarihah is Hudhaifah bin Asid [Al-Ghifârî] the Companion of the Prophet sawas.

Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal – Edition Darussalam – Volume 1 – Hadith 641 page 335

641. It was narrated that Zadhan Abu ‘Umar said: I heard ‘Ali in ar-Rahbah, when he was adjuring the people and asking who had been present with the Messenger of Allah (sawas) on the day of Ghadeer Khumm when he said what he said. Thirteen men stood up and testified that they had heard the Messenger of Allah (sawas) say: « If I am a person’s mawla, ‘Ali is also his mawla. »

Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal – Edition Darussalam – Volume 1 – Hadith 950 pages 459-460

950. It was narrated that Sa’eed bin Wahb and Zaid bin Yuthai’ said: ‘Ali adjured the people at ar-Rahbah, saying: Whoever heard the Messenger of Allah (sawas) speak on the day of Ghadeer Khumm, let him stand up. And (of the people) around Sa’eed, six men stood up, and (of the people) around Zaid, six men stood up, and they testified that they had heard the Messenger of Allah (sawas) say to ‘Ali (as) on the day of Ghadeer Khumm: « Isn’t it Allah Who is closer to the believers? » They said: Yes. He said: « O Allah, if I am a person’s mawla (friend and supporter) then ‘Ali is also his mawla; O Allah, take as friends those who take him as a friend, and take as enemies those who take him as an enemy. »

Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal – Edition Darussalam – Volume 1 – Hadith 961 page 465

961. It was narrated that ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Laila said: I saw ‘Ali (as) in ar-Rahbah, adjuring the people, (saying): I adjure by Allah anyone who heard the Messenger of Allah (sawas) say on the day of Ghadeer Khumm: « If I am a person’s mawla (friend and supporter) then ‘Ali is also his mawla », to stand up and testify. ‘Abdur-Rahman said: And twelve men who had been at Badr stood up. It is as if I can see one of them. And they said: We bear witness that we heard the Messenger of Allah (sawas) say on the day of Ghadeer Khumm: « Am I not doser to the believers than their own selves and my wives are their mothers? » We said: Yes indeed, O Messenger of Allah. He said: « If I am a person’s mawla (friend and supporter) then ‘Ali is also his mawla; O Allah, take as friends those who take him as a friend, and take as enemies those who take him as an enemy. »

Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal – Edition Darussalam – Volume 1 – Hadith 964 page 466-467

964. Simak bin ‘Ubaid bin al-Waleed al-‘Absi said: I entered upon ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Laila, who told me that he heard ‘Ali (as) say in ar-Rahbah: I adjure by Allah any man who heard the Messenger of Allah (sawas) and was present on the day of Ghadeer Khumm to stand up, and no one is to stand up except those who saw him. Twelve men stood up and said: We saw and heard him when he took him by the hand and said, « O Allah, take as friends those who take him as a friend, and take as enemies those who take him as an enemy, support those who support him and forsake those who forsake him. » Everyone stood up except three. He prayed against them and his supplication against them was fulfilled.

Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal – Edition Darussalam – Volume 1 – Hadith 1311 page 592

1311. It was narrated from ‘Ali that the Prophet (sawas) said on the day of Ghadeer Khumm: « If I am a person’s mawla (friend and supporter) then ‘Ali is also his mawla. » And the people added after that: « So take as friends those who take him as a friend and take as enemies those who take him as an enemy. » Comments: [Saheeh because of corroborating evidence and its isnad is da’eef because of the weakness of Nu’aim bin Hakeem and Abu Maryam is unknown]

Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal – Edition Darussalam – Volume 3 – Hadith 3061 pages 90, 91, 92 et 93

3061. ‘Amr bin Maimoon said: I was sitting with Ibn ‘Abbas (raa) when nine people came to him and said: O Abu ‘Abbas, either you get up and come with us, or you people should leave us alone. Ibn ‘Abbas said: Rather I will get up and go with you. At that time he was healthy, before he went blind. They started speaking and I did not know what they were saying. Then he started flapping his garment and saying: Uff! They criticised a man who had ten qualities; they criticised a man to whom the Prophet (sawas) said: « I shall surely send a man who Allah will never let down; he loves Allah and His Messenger. » And many hoped for it. He said: « Where is ‘Ali? » They said: He is at the mill grinding flour. He said: « Why can’t one of you do that? » Then he [‘Ali] came; he had an eye infection and could hardly see. [The Prophet (sawas)] spat dryly in his eyes, then he shook the banner three times and gave it to him- And he brought Safiyyah bint Huyay. Then he sent So and so with Soorat at-Tawbah, and he sent ‘Ali after him to take it from him. He said: « No one should take it except a man who is of me and I am of him. » And he said to his cousins: « Who among you would support me in this world and the Hereafter? » And ‘Ali was ? sitting with him. They refused but ‘Ali said: I will support you in this world and the Hereafter. He l said: « You are my supporter in this world and the Hereafter. » Then he turned from him to a man among them and he said: « Who among you would support me in this world and in the Hereafter? » They refused but ‘Ali said: I will be your supporter in this world and the Hereafter. He said: « You are my supporter in this world and the Hereafter. » He was the first of the people to become Muslim after Khadeejah. The Messenger of Allah (sawas) took his garment and put it over ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husain, and said: « Allah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs (evil deeds and sins) from you, O members of the family (of the Prophet (sawas)), and to purify you with a thorough purification » [al-Ahzab 33:33], ‘Ali sold himself (for the sake of Allah) when he wore the garment of the Prophet (sawas) and slept in his bed when the mushrikeen were after the Messenger of Allah (sawas). Abu Bakr came when ‘Ali was sleeping and he thought that he was the Prophet of Allah and said: O Prophet of Allah. ‘Ali said to him: The Prophet of Allah (sawas) has set out towards Bi’r Maimoon; go and catch up with him. So Abu Bakr set out and he entered the cave with him. ‘Ali had stones thrown at him, as happened to the Prophet of Allah, and he [‘Ali] was groaning with pain. He wrapped his head with the cloth and did not uncover it until moming came. Then he uncovered it and they said: You are bad; we used to throw stones at your companion and he never groaned with pain but you groaned with pain, and we found that strange. And he went out with the people on the campaign to Tabook. ‘Ali said to him: Shall I go out with you? The Prophet of Allah said to him: « No, » and ‘Ali wept. Then he said to him: « Doesn’t it please you to be to me as Haroon was to Moosa, except that you are not a Prophet? I should not go unless you are my deputy (acting in my stead during my absence). » And the Messenger of Allah (sawas) said to him: « You are protector of every believer after me. » And he blocked up all the doors of the mosque except the door of ‘Ali and he used to enter the mosque when he was junub, as that was his thoroughfare and he had no other thoroughfare. And he said: « If I am a person’s mawla, ‘Ali is also his mawla. » He said: Allah, may He be glorified! and exalted, told us in the Qur’an that He was pleased with them, meaning the companions of the tree (those who swore allegiance to the Prophet (sawas) in Bay’atar-Ridwan under a tree, mentioned in al-Fath 48:18). He knew what was in their hearts; did He tell us that He was angry with them after that?! And the Prophet of Allah (sawas) said to ‘Umar, when he said, Give me permission to strike his neck: « Would you do that? You do not know, perhaps Allah looked at the people of Badr and said: Do whatever you wish. »

Sahih Muslim – Edition Darussalam – Volume 6 – Hadiths 6225, 6226 page 267

[6225] 36 – (2408) Yazid bin Hayyan a dit: « Hussein bin Sabrah, Umar bin Muslim et moi-même sommes partis, puis arrivés chez Zaid bin Arqam. Lorsque nous prîmes place chez lui, Hussein lui dit (à Zaid bin Arqam) : « Ô Zaid, vous avez atteint un degré de bienfaisance méritoire! Vous avez vu le messager de Dieu (sawas) et entendu ses paroles, vous avez combattu avec lui, et avez prié derrière lui. Ô Zaid, vous avez certes atteint un degré de bienfaisance méritoire… Dites-nous donc, Ô Zaid, ce que vous avez entendu du messager de Dieu (sawas). Il (Zaid bin Arqam) dit alors : « Ô fils de mon frère, par Dieu, j’ai vieilli et ceci date d’il y a longtemps, j’ai oublié quelques choses de ce que j’ai appris venant du messager de Dieu (sawas). Quoique je vous relate, acceptez-le, et ne me repoussez pas. » Puis, il dit : « Un jour, le messager de Dieu se leva et s’adressa à nous, dans un lieu d’eau nommé Khumm, entre la Mecque et Médine. Il pria et glorifia le nom d’Allah, puis il nous exhorta et nous fit des rappels, après quoi il dit : « Ô gens, je ne suis qu’un homme, et bientôt le messager de mon Seigneur (référence à l’ange de la mort) viendra à moi et je répondrai. Je laisse parmi vous 2 choses valeureuses, la première d’entre elles est le Livre d’Allah dans lequel est la Guidance et la Lumière. Suivez le Livre d’Allah et accrochez-vous-y. Puis il nous encouragea à adhérer au Livre de Dieu, ensuite il dit : « Et les gens de ma demeure. Je vous rappelle Allah par les gens de ma maison, je vous rappelle Allah par les gens de ma maison, je vous rappelle Allah par les gens de ma maison. » Hussein lui dit : « Qui sont les gens de sa maison, Ô Zaid ? Ses femmes ne sont-elles pas parmi les gens de sa maison ? » Il répondit : « Ses femmes font partie des gens de la maison, mais les gens de sa maison sont ceux à qui la Zakât est interdite après qu’il (le prophète) soit parti. » Il (Hussein) demanda donc : « Qui sont-ils ? » Il (Zaid) répondit : « Ils sont la famille de ‘Ali, la famille de ‘Aqil, la famille de Ja’far et la famille de ‘Abbâs. » Le demandeur dit ainsi : « La Zakat était-elle interdite à tous ceux-ci ? » Il (Zaid bin Arqam) répondit « Oui. »

[6226] (…) It was narrated from Zaid bin Arqam from the Prophet sawas – and he quoted a Hadîth like that of Zuhair (no. 6225).

Sahih Muslim – Edition Darussalam – Volume 6 – Hadith 6227 pages 268, 269

[6227] (…) Une telle narration (n°6225) de Isma’il a été rapportée par Abu Hayyan avec cette chaîne de transmission, et dans le Hadith de Jarîr il y a en plus : « Le Livre d’Allah dans Lequel se trouve Guidance et Lumière ; quiconque s’attache à Lui et y adhère, suivra la Vraie Voie, et quiconque s’en détourne, s’égarera. »

Sahih Muslim – Edition Darussalam – Volume 6 – Hadith 6228 page 269

[6228] 37 – (…) Il a été rapporté que Yazid bin Hayyan a dit : « Nous sommes entrés chez Zaid bin Arqam et lui avons dit : « Vous avez vu de grandes choses ! Vous avez accompagné le messager de Dieu (sawas) et avez prié derrière lui… » et il cita un hadith tel que le rapporta Abu Hayyan (n°6225), excepté qu’il ajouta : ( »le messager de Dieu (sawas) a dit: ») « Voilà, je laisse parmi vous deux choses valeureuses, la première est Le Livre d’Allah, Glorifié et Exalté Soit-Il, qui est la Corde de Dieu. Quiconque suit cette voie sera bien-guidé, et quiconque l’abandonne sera égaré. » Et dedans (dans le hadith), il est dit : « Puis nous demandâmes : « Qui sont les gens de sa maison ? Ses femmes ? » Il répondit : « Non, par Dieu. Une femme devrait être avec un homme seulement pour une partie de sa vie, après quoi l’homme divorcerait pour qu’elle retourne chez son père et sa famille. Les gens de sa maison sont ses proches de sexe masculin, à qui la Zakat fut interdite après qu’il (le Prophète (sawas)) soit parti. »

Sunan Ibn Majah – Edition Darussalam – Volume 1 – Hadith 116 page 156

116. It was narrated that Barâ’ bin ‘Azib said: « We retumed with the Messenger of Allâh sawas from his Hajj that he had performed, and we stopped at some point on the road. He commanded that prayer should be performed in congregation, then he took the hand of ‘Ali and said: ‘Am I not dearer to the believers than their own selves?’ They said: ‘Yes indeed.’ He said: ‘Am I not dearer to every believer than his own self?’ They said: ‘Yes indeed.’ He said: ‘This man is the friend of those whose master I am.’ O Allâh, take as friends those who take him as a friend, and take as enemies those who take him as an enemy.’  » (Da’if)

Tafsir At-Tabari – Sourate 13 verset 7

Allah (swt) dit dans le Coran dans la Sourate 13 Al Ra’d verset 7 (traduction approximative) :

« Et ceux qui ont mécru disent : « Pourquoi n’a-t-on pas fait descendre sur celui-ci (Muhammad) un miracle venant de son Seigneur?  » Tu n’es qu’un avertisseur, et à chaque peuple un guide. »

L’avertisseur est Sayyidina Mohammed (sawas) et le guide est Sayyidina ‘Ali (as)

Nous trouvons dans le tafsir de l’Imam At-Tabari au verset précité un hadith sur le sujet et il rapporte 2 chaines de transmission :

حدثنا أحمد بن يحيى الصوفـيّ، قال: ثنا الـحسن بن الـحسين الأنصاري، قال: ثنا معاذ بن مسلـم، ثنا الهروي، عن عطاء بن السائب، عن سعيد بن جبـير، عن ابن عبـاس، قال: لـما نزلت { إنَّـمَا أنْتَ مُنْذِرٌ وَلِكُلّ قَومٍ هادٍ } وضع صلى الله عليه وسلم يده علـى صدره، فقال: ” أنَا الـمُنْذِرُ وَلِكُلّ قَوْمٍ هادٍ ” وأومأ بـيده إلـى منكب علـيّ، فقال: ” أنْتَ الهادِي يا عَلـيّ، بك يَهْتَدِي الـمُهْتَدُون بَعْدِي “.

Ibn ‘Abbas à dit :  » Quand le verset à été révélé le Prophète à placé sa main sur la poitrine de ‘Ali puis à dit :
« Je suis l’avertisseur et pour chaque peuple un guide »
Puis il fis un signe de la main a l’attention de ‘Ali et il à dit :
« O Ali tu est le guide (hadi) et tu guidera les guidés après moi »

Que dit le hafidh Ibn Hajar Al ‘Asqalani sur ce hadith ?
أخرجه الطبري بإسناد حسن من طريق سعيد بن جبير عن بن عباس قال لما نزلت هذه الآية وضع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يده على صدره وقال أنا المنذر وأومأ إلى على وقال أنت الهادي بك يهتدي المهتدون بعدي

« l’a rapporté al tabari avec une chaine HASSAN (bonne) par la voie de Sa’id ibn al jubayr de Ibn ‘Abass (…)

Nous avons plusieurs chaines pour ce hadith :
At Tabari (tafsir) : Rapporte 2 chaines
Ibn Asakir (tarikh dimashq): Rapporte 4 chaines
Al Hakim : Rapporte une chaine
Ibn Abi Hatim dans son tafsir au verset precité : 1 chaine
Al Haskani dans shawahid al tanzil : 13 chaines